Mathematics in the Holy Quran

Our today’s discussion is Verse No. 05 , Surah No. 55

اَلشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْـبَانٍ

The sun and the moon [move] by precise calculation.

By WordRoot wordNo. of Instances
in The Holy Quran
Meaning  First PlacementLast Placement
اَلشَّمْسُش م س33The sunVerse No. 258
Surah No. 02
Verse No. 01
Surah No. 91
وَالْقَمَرُق م ر27And the moonVerse No. 77
Surah No. 06
Verse No. 02
Surah No. 91
بِحُسْـبَانٍح س ب107By (precise)
calculation
Verse No. 202
Surah No.02
Verse No. 03
Surah No. 104

اَلَمْ تَرَ اِلَى الَّذِيْ حَاۗجَّ اِبْرٰھٖمَ فِيْ رَبِّهٖٓ اَنْ اٰتٰىهُ اللّٰهُ الْمُلْكَ ۘاِذْ قَالَ اِبْرٰھٖمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِيْ يُـحْيٖ وَيُمِيْتُ ۙ قَالَ اَنَا اُحْيٖ وَاُمِيْتُ ۭ قَالَ اِبْرٰھٖمُ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ يَاْتِيْ بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَاْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِيْ كَفَرَ ۭ وَاللّٰهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظّٰلِمِيْنَ

The first placement of the root word ( ش م س / اَلشَّمْسُ ) is in Verse No. 258 Surah No. 02 :Are you [O Prophet] not aware of the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord because Allah had granted him kingship? [Remember] when Abraham said, “My Lord is the One Who has power to give life and cause death.” He argued, “I too have the power to give life and cause death.” Abraham challenged ˹him˺, “Allah causes the sun to rise from the east. So make it rise from the west.” And so the disbeliever was dumbstruck. And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحٰىهَا

The last placement of the root word ( ش م س / اَلشَّمْسُ ) is in Verse No. 01 Surah No. 91 :By the sun and its brightness.


To understand the correlation between the previous Verse and this verse we will study few of more verses of Surah Al An’am.

وَاِذْ قَالَ اِبْرٰهِيْمُ لِاَبِيْهِ اٰزَرَ اَتَتَّخِذُ اَصْنَامًا اٰلِهَةً ۚ اِنِّىْٓ اَرٰىكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِيْ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِيْنٍ

And ˹remember˺ when Abraham said to his father, Ȃzar, “Do you take idols as gods? It is clear to me that you and your people are entirely misguided.”( Verse No. 74 Surah No. 06 )

وَكَذٰلِكَ نُرِيْٓ اِبْرٰهِيْمَ مَلَكُوْتَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ وَلِيَكُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُوْقِنِيْنَ

We also showed Abraham the wonders of the heavens and the earth, so he would be sure in faith.( Verse No. 75 Surah No. 06 )

فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ الَّيْلُ رَاٰ كَوْكَبًا ۚ قَالَ هٰذَا رَبِّيْ ۚ فَلَمَّآ اَفَلَ قَالَ لَآ اُحِبُّ الْاٰفِلِيْنَ

When the night grew dark upon him, he saw a star and said, “This is my Lord!” But when it set, he said, “I do not love things that set.” ( Verse No. 76 Surah No. 06 )

فَلَمَّا رَاَ الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هٰذَا رَبِّيْ ۚ فَلَمَّآ اَفَلَ قَالَ لَىِٕنْ لَّمْ يَهْدِنِيْ رَبِّيْ لَاَكُوْنَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّاۗلِّيْنَ

So, the first placement of the root word ( ق م ر / وَالْقَمَرُ ) is in Verse No. 77 Surah No. 06:And when he saw the moon rising, he said, “This is my lord.” But when it set, he said, “Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among the people gone astray.”

First Abraham(A.S) challenged Namrud(the king of Iraq in the time of Abraham) to rise the sun from east . After that he himself done the analysis about the moon and concluded that moon could not be his lord due to it limitation of time. Both Sun and Moon were used as symbol to teach Abraham(A.S) the Oneness of Allah. And are correlated in a beautiful manner in different places in the Holy Quran and revelated to Rasool Allah (SAW) in two different chapters of the Holy Quran.

وَالْقَمَرِ اِذَا تَلٰىهَا

The last placement of the root word ( ق م ر / وَالْقَمَرُ ) is in Verse No. 02 Surah No. 91:Subhan Allah ,Allah Subhan O Talah is so peculiar about the relationship ( ش م س / اَلشَّمْسُ ) is in Verse No. 01 Surah No. 91 and ( ق م ر / وَالْقَمَرُ ) is in Verse No. 02 Surah No. 91 . In same Surah – Allah Subhan O Talah define the Sun and after that the moon. As Abraham(A.S) first describe the characteristic of Sun and Later he explain about the moon.


اُولٰۗىِٕكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيْبٌ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوْا ۭ وَاللّٰهُ سَرِيْعُ الْحِسَابِ

The first placement of the root word ( ح س ب / بِحُسْـبَانٍ ) is in Verse No. 202 Surah No.02 :It is they who will receive a ˹heavenly˺ reward for the good they have done. Surely Allah is swift in reckoning( Swift in reckoning (Sari-Ul-Hisab) means “He is quick in recording the deeds and judging them.”)

يَحْسَبُ اَنَّ مَالَهٗٓ اَخْلَدَهٗ

The last placement of the root word ( ح س ب / بِحُسْـبَانٍ ) is in Verse No. 03 Surah No. 104 :Thinking that their wealth will make them immortal.

In the closing remark Allah Subhan O Talah is addressing to those who claim to become immortal on the valuation of their wealth. Allah Subhan O Talah is admonishing them surely Allah is swift in reckoning( Swift in reckoning (Sari-Ul-Hisab) means “He is quick in recording the deeds and judging them.”)


The sun and the moon [move] by precise calculation. Yes true the Sun and the moon move and place in the Holy Quran by precise calculation.

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